German Recital

German Recital - Flute And Harp Vol.1

CD 5050-19
Rachel Talitman-Harp, Marcos Fregnani-Martins Flute
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German Recital The mechanical development of the harp in Germany at the beginning of the 18th century brought about a growing interest in this instrument among musicians. The harp was no longer a salon instrument. A generation of virtuoso harpists and composers played all over Europe, inspiring fellow composers to write for the harp .The single movement pedal harp was invented in Germany by Jacob Hochbrücker around 1720 it was made known in European countries by German harpists. This new harp was greeted with enthusiasm by the French nobility. This explains the variety of works written by German composers who came to France during the first half of the 18th century. Among them are the virtuoso Christian Hochbrücker (1773-1800) who was born in Bavaria and was related to Jacob Hochbrücker; Philippe Jacques Meyer (1739-1819) who was born in Strassbourg and became a pupil of Christian Hochbrücker, publishing the oldest method of harp playing. Friedrich Wilhelm Rust ( 1739-1796) who was born into a family of musicians studied law at the University of Halle, where he met Wilhelm Friedemann Bach. From 1762 onwards Rust studied music with Charles Hoeck and Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. In 1767 he accompanied prince Leopold Friedrich Franz of Anhalt-Dessau on his trip to Italy, where he studied with Giuseppe Tartini and others .He followed Johann Friedrich Fasch as musical director of the court orchestra of Dessau. Goethe met him in 1776 and was deeply impressed. The list of his compositions is vast. The sonata for harp and flute attests to the influence of Bach's children. Little is known about Anton Gottlieb Heyse. He was a harpist and composer and lived in Halle during the last decades of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th. Among his works one can find several sonatas for harp and flute, and a manual for harp which is difficult to find in libraries nowadays. As opposed to many of the previously mentioned harpists, Heyse lived in Germany. His style is reminiscent of the music written by his contemporaries. The son of the German violinist and composer Wilhelm Cramer, brother of violinist Franz Cramer, Johann Baptist Cramer (1743-1799) was born in Mannheim .He studied the piano with Samuel Schröter and Muzio Cmementi in London, and musical theory with Carl Friedrich Abel. In 1788 he launched his international career as a pianist, making London his base. He also played in the prestigious Salomon Series which featured prominent musicians such as Joseph Haydn. In Vienna he met Beethoven who greatly appreciated his compositions. In 1824 he founded together with Addison and Beale a publishing House which still exists in London, though under the name of J. B. Cramer & Co. Having lived in Paris from 1832 to 1845, he returned to London and died in Kensington. Franz Anton Hoffmeister (1754-1812) left for Vienna in 1768 in order to take up law studies. However, he decided to concentrate on music. He took lessons with Johann Georg Albrechtsberger, and by 1780 was one of the most popular and prolific composers. In 1778 he published his first symphonies and at the same time he was nominated chief musical director of with the Hungarian count Franz von Szecsenyi. He later returned to Vienna and spent his time editing his own compositions and those of other composers, such as Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Clementi, Albrechtsberger, Dittersdorf, and Vanhal. Among Hoffmeister's friends was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who dedicated his string quartets (KV 499) to him. Beethoven referred to Hoffmeister as “my dear brother”. Some of Hoffmeister’s compositions were played in the Salomon Concerts in 1790. He went on a concert tour with the flutist Fr. Thurner and from 1798 to 1805 resided in Leipzig where he established the “Concert Office”. Among his compositions there are many for the flute ,which was highly popular in those days, both concertos and chamber music compositions most of which were written in Vienna. In 1800 he composed the sonata for harp with flute accompaniment, published by the “Concert Office”. The principal role is played by the harp, while the flute contributes to the melody. Hoffmeister’s music is uncomplicated, as in most of his compositions. Back in Vienna in 1805, Hoffmeister dedicated himself to fully to composing. ”Looking at his works, you cannot but admire the diligence and the ability of this composer. He certainly deserves his reputation. His talent is rich in emotional expression and especially creative instrumental adaptation,” wrote one of his contemporaries. Hoffmeister is known today mainly for his enormous editorial work. Anton Bernhard Fürstenau was the most eminent flute virtuoso at the beginning of the 19th century. Born in Munster in 1792 into a family of flutists, he studied the flute with his father Kaspar. At the age of 7 he played on a concert tour together with his father. In 1815, at a concert in Prague, he met Carl Maria von Weber who became his intimate friend. In 1820 he followed him to Dresden and became the flutist of the Royal Orchestra of Saxony which was conducted by Weber. It was during that period that he began composing. The collaboration with Weber was important and beneficial for him. All his compositions are for the flute - concertos, chamber music and solo works which are still played today. His son Moritz, who was his pupil, succeeded him at the Dresden's Orchestra. In his compositions Fürstenau very often used themes from the operas of Weber, as he did in the Fantasie. A serie of seven Fantasias for flute and piano precedes the Fantasie for flute and harp. A majestic introduction is followed by the theme of the Max Aria in “Der Freischütz”, after three variations and a free Fantasia Max's Aria reappears and ends this beautiful piece. The Variations were dedicated to the harpist Therese Emilie aus dem Winckel (born in Weisenfels) in 1784 and who died in Dresden in 1867, where she was highly reputed as a harpist and a teacher. This exceptional woman was also a painter and a writer. She lived in Paris from 1806 till 1808 where she studied the harp with François Joseph Naderman and Marcel de Marin, and painting with Louis David. The part of the harp in this piece is meant to show virtuosity and brilliant technique. Therese aus dem Winckel played the harp of double actions*** pedals which had just been invented, and was one of the most important advocates for this new instrument. The flute part is brilliant. Fürstenau himself played the German traditional flute, like Wilhelm Liebel .He published articles concerning the art of flute playing and added instructions and directions.